The accusative case indicates the goal of a verbal action, thus, the direct object of a transitive verb. Besides this (along with various prepositions), the accusative expresses: time, place, direction of movement, purpose etc.
|-Ø: bulevar-Ø (= Nom.)||-e: bulevar-e, momk-e|
|-a: momk-a, Mark-a, Đorđ-a (= Gen.)|
|-u: žen-u, devojk-u||-e: žen-e, devojk-e|
|-Ø: reč-Ø||-i: reč-i|
|-o/-e: pism-o, polj-e (= Nom.)
-Ø: ime-Ø (= Nom.)
|-a: pism-a, polj-a
1) The masculine gender nouns denoting animate and inanimate objects differ in the accusative case suffixes. Inanimate nouns have the same form as in the nominative, whereas animate nouns have the same suffix as in the genitive. This goes for matching ajdectives and pronouns as well. (e.g. Koga voliš? Volim svog momka. Šta voliš? Volim svoj grad.)
2) Neuter gender nouns (such as ime, vreme) in the plural have an extended stem by inserting the consonant -n-
(e.g. Nom. = Acc. sg.: ime-Ø, vreme-Ø; Nom. = Acc. pl.: ime-n-a, vreme-n-a)
1) direct object
This function is represented by nouns / noun phrases in the accusative without a preposition, and is governed by transitive verbs. This is given as the answer to the question: Koga? (for animate nouns) or Šta? (for inanimate nouns). (e.g. Koga slušaš? Slušam profesora. Šta čitaš? Čitam roman.)
Nouns / noun phrases in the accusative can also express place. There is a difference between expressing an aim (target) of the action and expressing the specific direction of movement.
a) An aim (target) of the action is represented by nouns / noun phrases in the accusative, preceded by the prepositions U or NA. This answers the question: Kuda?
(e.g. Kuda putuješ? Putujem NA more. Kuda žuriš? Žurim U školu.)
U is used with the names of towns (u Novi Sad, u Italiju), with nouns denoting closed places (u biblioteku, u park, u pozorište).
NA is used with the nouns denoting an open space, a large flat areas or the top of a certain area (na tenisko igralište, na fakultet, na more, na planinu), and with the nouns denoting some event (na izlet, na žurku).
b) The specific direction of movement in space is expressed by nouns / noun phrases in the accusative preceded by the prepositions NIZ, UZ and KROZ. This is given as the answer to the question: Kuda? Kojim putem?
(e.g. Kuda Jovan ide? Jovan ide NIZ ulicu / UZ stepenice. Kuda prolaziš? Prolazim KROZ stan.)
This is represented by nouns / noun phrases in the accusative preceded by the prepositions U and NA. This accusative is given as the answer to the question: Kada?
(e.g. Kada ideš u bioskop? U ponedeljak. Kada putuješ u Italiju? Na leto.)
Nouns denoting days in a week are preceded by the preposition U; and nouns denoting seasons are preceded by the preposition NA. (e.g. u ponedeljak, u utorak, u sredu, na leto, na jesen)
Purpose is expressed nouns / noun phrases in the accusative preceded by the preposition ZA. This is given as the answer to the questions: Za koga? (for animate nouns) or Za šta? (for inanimate nouns)
(e.g. Za koga je knjiga? Knjiga je za Milana. Za šta koristiš ovu šolju? Ovu šolju koristim za toplu čokoladu.)