Endings of the instrumental singular are the same for all three genders. For masculine nouns ending in a consonant add – om, and for neuter ending in – o, and feminine ending in –a replace the last letter with –om.

Some neuter nouns, such as more, end in – e. For these nouns change –e to –em: more to morem.

Some masculine nouns end in a soft consonant. The soft consonants are c, ć, č, dž, đ, j, lj, nj, š and ž.

To form instrumental case after one of these consonants add – em instead of -om: mužem, čajem.


  1. The instrumental is used to translate ‘with’ or ‘by’ denoting the instrument with which an action is performed: pisati olovkom, putovati autmobilom.
  2. After certain prepositions:

S or SA ‘together with’ or ‘accompanied by’: On radi sa Jovanom. Volim kafu s mlijekom.

ZA with the instrumental case has the meaning ‘at’: On sjedi za stolom. (He is sitting at the table).

  • It is used to express the meaning of an action that is repeated on certain days (on Wednesdays, Mondays etc): Srijedom Marko igra tenis.

The instrumental case answers the questions S KIM? ( With whom?) Čime? (by what?)


Answer the following questions using the words in brackets in the instrumental case:

  1. S kim Marko igra tenis? (Dragan)
  2. S kim Dragana ide na more? (Marija)
  3. S kim ideš u vrtić? (sestra)
  4. Kako putujete u Pariz? (avion)
  5. Kako ideš na posao? (automobil)

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form:

  1. Marija voli čaj sa _________ (mlijeko), a Marko sa ______________ (limun).
  2. Svaki dan razgovaram sa ____________ (sestra) i _________________ (brat).
  3. Danas idem u pozorište sa _____________ (drugarica).
  4. Željeli smo da putujemo ___________ (avion).
  5. Svako jutro Marko sjedi za _______(sto) i čita novine.
  6. Molim vas, jedan sendvič sa ____________ (šunka) i __________ (sir).

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